The Origins of Management and Measurement in Missiology

The origins of management and measurement in missiology are shrouded in the veils of history and my own ignorance. It starts very early when people (especially evangelists) begin to correlate certain methods with certain results (either bad or good). We can already see an obvious focus on using right methods to get right results in the Second Great Awakening, the rise of revivalism, and some of the developments of Methodism. However, the introduction of the science of the management, method, and measurement to spiritual / church growth began with a paper presented by Dr. Donald McGavran in 1974 at the International Congress on World Evangelization in Lausanne.1 His paper was based on research into why some churches on the mission fields of India grew rapidly, while other churches stagnated or even declined. He made a strong argument for the necessity of cross-cultural missions, the irrelevance of the “mission station”, and emphasized the enormity of the unfinished task of reaching the unreached. McGavran defined the problem and solution of the Great Commandment as follows:

  1. There are places where God has uniquely prepared the populace for rapid growth
  2. There is a significant relationship between methods and church growth.
  3. The resources devoted to mission are limited.
  4. We live in the last days. The time to accomplish the Great Commission is also limited.
  5. Therefore, the resources of the church should be invested in places most amenable to the gospel and use methods that favor the occurrence of rapid church growth.

The formulation of the problem already assumes the management paradigm and the ability to measure success. The paper is based on the numerical growth of certain churches as opposed to other churches. McGavran makes two very simple assumptions. He assumes that the correlation of certain methods with numerical growth means that those methods (in some sense) cause church growth AND that numerical church growth is an appropriate indicator of the accomplishment of the Great Commission. Voila! The Great Commission becomes a classic management problem. How do we achieve our objective (Great Commission) while making the best use of limited time, money, and human resources while maintaining program quality? One of the first steps that McGavran takes is to redefine quality so that it can be measured2.

With this paper, the Church Growth school of missiology (and with it the era of managing mission) entered the mainstream, and promptly took over. The discussion shifted towards methodology (how to accomplish the mission of God). Methodology was judged by its success or failure in producing converts and/or growing churches. Management became an unquestioned paradigm for the most part. Mission agencies increasingly focused on strategy, resource mobilization, and methods / techniques. The historically astute reader will notice that this was not a new development. It is part of the warp and woof of a modern, scientific, deterministic worldview. In essence, this was a continuation of the 2nd Great Awakening’s search for the perfect method (as exemplified by Charles Finney, for example) and the early 20th century sociologists search for the perfect social structure (for example, Max Weber’s “rationalization” of the world, Jacques Ellul’s emphasis on technology).

But there can be no strategy without evaluation. We must be able to see and measure which method works the best, which place is the most amenable to the gospel, and which strategy is the most effective. This (re)raised difficult theological questions. “What is a true church?” “What is a true conversion?” In other words, what do we want to see in a transformed life, church, region? The field of church growth made some simplifying assumptions. McGavran took the position that “discipling” and “perfecting” are two different things, not to be confused. This makes the measurement problem inherent in managing spiritual/church growth disappear because you can just count baptisms.

The school of church growth was not confined to the “foreign” mission field, it also took root in American churches. The “seeker sensitive” movement is a direct outgrowth of the school of church growth. There is no doubt that, judged on its own terms, the school of church growth has often succeeded and has provided some needful correctives to mainstream Christianity.

In the end, the school of church growth, and therefore the management paradigm, has won the battle of ideas in the West. Few indeed are the churches who have not hired a growth or giving consultant. We track indicators and measure results: attendance, giving, focus group discussions. Many lessons have been learned from the foreign mission field that have helped today’s Western churches, Christian organizations, and missions agencies become the largest, richest, most successful in the history of the church. .

So what’s the problem? That’s what we will discuss next time.

1I am indebted to Lesslie Newbigin’s helpful recapitulation of this history in Lesslie Newbigin, The Open Secret: An Introduction to the Theology of Mission, Revised edition (Eerdmans Publishing, 1995).

The Heart of Integral Mission is … the Heart

Christian development has a long history, and a checkered one, if we are honest. One of the latest developments from a historical perspective is the professionalization of the field in the 80s and 90s, ably described by Bryant Myers, in his book Walking with the Poor. Prior to that time, development workers were “talented amateurs” with their hearts in the right place, but, all too often, lacking the skills and perspectives necessary to help communities develop without causing unintentional harm. Since that time, professional development has become part of the life and experience of most development workers. It is a rare worker that doesn’t have a professional degree and a rare year that doesn’t include a training or two on a new perspective, technique, or cross-cutting issue. We preach the same emphasis to members of local churches who want to get involved in this thing we call “integral mission”. This emphasis on education and skill-building has had a significant positive impact on our mission to reduce poverty and increase human well-being.

 But when we talk about integral mission, diverse technical skills and a sound fundamental understanding of development are necessary but not sufficient. We need to be able to facilitate a group effectively. We need to know how to mitigate the risks for the women and girls whom we serve. We need to understand effective and transparent financial management. But those things don’t change lives holistically. Skills and perspectives are not enough. More importantly, skills and perspectives are not the right place to start. The first qualification for an integral missionary is a life that is being transformed by the Holy Spirit. And that first qualification is what has been neglected as the pendulum whistled by.

 Our being, our relationship with Jesus, our own transformation, should be the source of our actions and of our words. But “being” has always been the neglected step-child of the integral mission trinity. “Being” has always been a difficult idea for development professionals, and for all of those educated or socialized into the Western traditions. It is difficult to see, to touch, to measure. It is internal, not external. So, somewhat ironically, the advocates of integral mission often integrate word and deed, and detach them from being / transformation, and outsource that element to the local church.

 The Micah Network’s Declaration on Integral Mission is an excellent document, but it is typical when it talks about our being.

Integral mission or holistic transformation is the proclamation and demonstration of the gospel. It is not simply that evangelism and social involvement are to be done alongside each other. Rather, in integral mission our proclamation has social consequences as we call people to love and repentance in all areas of life. And our social involvement has evangelistic consequences as we bear witness to the transforming grace of Jesus Christ.

If we ignore the world we betray the word of God, which sends us out to serve the world. If we ignore the word of God we have nothing to bring to the world. Justice and justification by faith, worship and political action, the spiritual and the material, personal change and structural change belong together. As in the life of Jesus, being, doing and saying are at the heart of our integral task

Have you ever noticed the word “being” in the last sentence? It is unreferenced otherwise, an insignificant part of a document that focuses on reuniting proclamation and demonstration.

The problem is that the heart, the mind, the soul, our being, which Jesus thought was central, is functionally irrelevant to our conception of integral mission, both in our words and in our deeds. In our words, we spend most of our time talking about word and deed. In our deeds, we spend all of our time improving our skills, doing the work, and teaching others to talk about integral mission the same way that we do. Have we also, unknowingly, become Pharisees who whitewash the outside of the tomb? I hope not. I hope we are just taking spiritual transformation in our people for granted. As a given. But, in order to do great development work, to truly live out integral mission, we must remember that the reason that our words and our deeds are a whole is that they spring from the same source. Our new techniques, our ways of speaking must always and intentionally be grounded in their source, our being.

 Luke 6:45 – A good man brings good things out of the good stored up in his heart, and an evil man brings evil things out of the evil stored up in his heart. For the mouth speaks what the heart is full of.         

If we truly believe that, then we must begin devoting as much time, individually and corporately, to our being as we do to the professional skills that we find so useful.

Retiring from the Shouting Match

Have you ever thought about how God has chosen to communicate with his people? It’s a fascinating question that we have explored here and here over the last two months. I’d like to take a final step this month, which is where we have been heading all along.

In the last century, and particularly in the last decade, our powers of communication have become godlike.

Take a second to ponder the truth of that statement. Instant communication, written, verbal, and visual, globally. Messages broadcast that will reach billions of people. Memes. Social media: Instagram, YouTube, Facebook. Our voices are amplified a thousand, a million times. Instant, high-quality translation to the major world languages. Humanity is again creating the Tower of Babel, striving towards the infinite.

After spending the last two months examining the characteristics of God’s communication, let’s turn our attention to ourselves. What messages and what values are being amplified by these godlike powers? What are the characteristics of our speech?

That question is too broad to examine here, even if we cut out the vast majority of our enhanced communication that is involved with selling products (which is certainly a characteristic worth contemplating).

A more focused question is: How are we using these new powers of communication with respect to our concern for justice and how should we use them?

There are clear trends in our use of social media with regard to justice. Positive trends like increased enthusiasm, support, and awareness for causes. Negative trends like the use of shame and alienation as a weapon to enforce conformity. Division and tribalism. It seems like everyone in the world is standing up for causes and raising their voices in virtual solidarity. Social media has become a deafening cacophony of activism.

Shouldn’t we be involved? After all, there are a billion Christians. We have a massive presence on social media. Our voice is loud. We can make a difference! We will surely lose the battle in the marketplace of ideas if we aren’t involved.

I have written previously about why it makes me nervous when Christians start doing a new thing that non-believers are doing for the same reasons. I believe that it should drive us immediately to critical reflection based in the Word, and informed by our experience.

If godlike powers of communication are a new thing, then we can begin by remembering how God has used his powers of communication.

Last month, we talked about the specific, relational nature of God’s communication. God is incredibly patient. He spent thousands of years investing in a small nation preparing a conceptual and religious framework for his ultimate revelation and the blessing of all nations. The supreme revelation of God comes in the person of Jesus. God chose to lay down the power and prerogatives of Deity, and take the form of a servant, limited in both time and space, in order to achieve the deepest, richest communication with us.

Jesus, as God’s Word, does not seem to have been an activist, at least not in the modern sense. He lived as part of an oppressed, conquered people that were discriminated against on the basis of both race and religion. He was surrounded by injustice. Jesus appears not to have addressed those injustices as issues that could be separated from the source of justice, the coming of the kingdom. It appears that he only discussed issues of justice with members of the community of faith, or those who asked about that community. Justice, salvation, mercy, obedience, repentance, and faith seem to have formed a cohesive whole in his teachings.

Jesus entrusted his message to a small group of people to be spread throughout the nations, as God has consistently done since the beginning.

If we move to the apostles, we notice that Paul seemed to believe that a long, profoundly thoughtful letter was at best a complement to face-to-face conversations (Rom 1:11). We know that Paul had opportunities to assert power as a god (Acts 14:11-15), as did Jesus before him (as a king  in John 6:15). Both actively rejected the position of power. We know that Jesus has the power to proclaim the message of God and God’s justice to all of humanity at any time, and has thus far chosen not to.

Moving from observations about how God has communicated to conclusions about how we should communicated is not simple! I do not know the answers. But I have a hard time imagining Jesus tweeting in righteous anger. Or Paul making a selfie video about his support for an issue. Those images don’t sit well together with how God has worked, and asked His people to work, in the past.

The God who chose the 12 and chased away the thousands in John 6 doesn’t seem to me like a God who is seeking a megaphone. The possible exception is the Old Testament prophets. But, much like the Old Testament law, they seemed to have been a guide on what doesn’t work with sinful humanity (and a sign of our sinfulness), rather than an instruction book on how to improve people in the quickest way possible.

What if there is something profound in God’s chosen method of self-revelation, mediated through personal relationship? What if there is an important truth in Jesus’ avoidance of the crowds?

The problem is humans are suckers for the newest thing. But there is nothing new under the sun. The internet and social media aren’t new. They aren’t revolutionary. The ancient world had an internet too. It was called the city. It was like the internet, just as full of information, news (true and false), and social networks when compared to the countryside.

What if you can’t stand for issues? What if you can only stand with people? Not with them in principle, but actually with them. Not for minutes or hours, but for months and years. What if solidarity requires presence? What if there is no way to scale relationship? What if change is never cheap or easy? What if all that extra noise is just that, noise?

Is there any medium to which Shakespeare’s words in Macbeth refer to more accurately, “a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.”

What if time alone on the mountain is more important than the power to mandate change?

These are questions worth thinking about, friends. God’s chosen methods of communication seem far distant from ours. Not only exhibiting different kinds of communications, but different underlying values. That is not how ambassadors are generally supposed to function. God has always had the ability to do all of the things that we can do now, and more. He chose to come. To sit. To write long letters, spaced out to give us plenty of time to think and live and change. He paid a very high price, and expected his followers to do the same. If God really cared about scale, why not just skip the middle step (partnering with people) and handle it Himself? He chose the 12, not the 5,012. I think that was intentional. He chose to send people to spread his word. God’s communication is non-universal. It is specific, relational, progressive, integral, and incarnational.

God’s rationale is unfathomable, but it makes sense that this method would actually be the most effective in the long run, given what we know of people. We are so quick to anger, quick to exclude people, so easy to be influenced.

So why not retire from the shouting match? After all, nobody else is doing it. We might just enjoy the silence. And in the silence, we might hear God’s voice reminding us that “Go” does not require international travel, nor is sitting with a megaphone sufficient, but it does require motion and relationship.

The Non-Universal Communication of God

Last month, we examined the idea that God’s Word is not merely content. It is intentionally communicated content. God is a communicator. If you missed it, you can find it here.

This month, we will examine a characteristic of the communication of God as a case study. The non-universality of divine communication is both counter-intuitive and counter-cultural. Therefore, it has a lot to teach us about God and the values of His kingdom.

In short, the non-universality of divine communication is that fact that God could address all of humanity, but chooses not to.  Lesslie Newbigin calls it “the scandal of particularity”.

“To a devout Hindu, heir to four thousand years of profound religious and philosophical experience, there is something truly scandalous in the suggestion that, to put it crudely, he or she must import the necessities for salvation from abroad. “Is it really credible,” the Hindu will ask, “that the Supreme Being whom I and my ancestors have loved and worshipped for forty centuries is incapable of meeting my soul’s need, and that I must await the coming of an agent of another tradition from Europe or North America if I am to receive his salvation? What kind of a god are you asking me to believe in? Is he not simply the projection of your own culture-bound prejudices? Come! Let us be reasonable! Let us open our treasures and put them side by side, and we shall see that your symbols and mine are but the differing forms of one reality shaped according to our different histories and cultures. If God is truly God – God of all peoples and all the earth – then surely God can and will save me where I am with the means he has provided for me in the long experience of my own people.”

 Who can deny the reasonableness of this plea? …

The scandal of particularity is at the center of the question of missions. To be more precise, it is the problem of relating God’s universality to his particular deeds and words. God is over all and in all; not a sparrow falls to the ground without his will. Yet the Bible talks of God acting and God speaking in particular times and places. How are these related? With what propriety can we speak of particular acts of God if God is universal Lord of all? How can we relate this universality to this particularity?” (Newbigin, The Open Secret)

Newbigin’s interest is apologetic, so he proceeds to provide a theological justification of this characteristic of the divine communication. In the end, it is election, the selection of the remnant for the blessing of the whole world, that provides the justification. Newbigin’s thinking here is clear and coherent.

Our interest here is in God as a communicator, not in apologetics.

What does it mean that God has chosen not to communicate universally?

He has crafted a message for an elect (or selected) group or individual that is intended to be a blessing for the world. That was the case with Abram, with Moses, with Elijah, with the prophets, with John the Baptist. There is one important caveat: God has a universal salvific intent, but God has chosen to communicate through specific, non-universal messages.

Why has God has chosen to communicate the Good News  primarily through ambassadors in communicating with the vast majority of humanity?

There are several characteristics that undergird God’s non-universal communication. that are worth examining. Remember, these reveal something about God and the values of God’s kingdom.

Specific

The opposite of universal is specific. God crafts messages, even in the Garden of Eden, that are specific to the person receiving the message. It should be astounding that God devotes so much of Scripture to revelation that is time-bound and specific to only a few people! When God tells Lot and his family not to look back at the destruction of Sodom, it is not a universal message for all people at all times. It is a warning for Lot’s family. The promise of a child in old age is not universal to all believers. It was a promise given to Abram and Sarai. The corollary to this principle is that God is the one who is active in selection and communication. God seeks out his enemies. God does not often choose to speak in universal principles universally proclaimed. Even when God chooses to use mass messaging (so to speak), His message is embodied in a person who goes to the place and proclaims the message. We can infer that God values something more than efficiency or speed.

Relational

Universal communication is an absolute. Universal messages are impersonal, each person and group receives the same message. The majority of God’s messages are based on long-term relationships with specific people or groups. It is relational, instead of absolute, and personal rather than impersonal. The Ten Commandments are based on a thousand years of history with the family of Abraham. The Prophets, Jesus. God spends most of recorded revelation speaking to (and through) people with whom He has established a relationship. There are exceptions (Balaam and His donkey for one), but the tendency is clear. It seems fair to say that God values relationships.

Progressive

This is a characteristic that only makes sense in relational communication. For truly universal communication, every person across time should get the same content. But progressive revelation is an undeniable characteristic of God’s communication. Even the great prophets of yore wished that they would see what we have seen, but didn’t. God didn’t reveal the full plan of salvation to Adam and Eve before the Fall (or after the Fall, for that matter). Nor did God warn them about the snake, at least as far as we know. God didn’t reveal the fullness of the plan to Abraham, Moses, or the prophets. The disciples also seemed confused about what and how God was trying to work. This is counter-intuitive for Westerners raised in a culture where belief is intellectual assent to a set of truths. If that is what faith is, then God did a bad job of revealing Himself. If not, then we can see that our fallen-ness (not only of doing, but of understanding!) is far more serious than we would like to admit. It took thousands of years to lay a foundation that gave the message of salvation a hope of being accepted by a tiny portion of a single small nation. God reveals Himself in bits and pieces, slowly, over time, and one suspects, as we are able to accept.

Integral

God’s words and deeds complement one another and prove one another. His actions demonstrate the truths that He proclaims. This is not universally true! In other words, it has not been apparent to every person at every time that God’s words and deeds match, and it won’t be fully integral until the Second Coming. This is the concept of the Already / Not Yet kingdom. It is the confusion of the disciples at the foot of the cross. But the message of Scripture is that God’s words and deeds flow out of His Being, and they are all in perfect harmony. Which leads us to the most integral of all God’s actions, the Incarnation.

Incarnational

The logical end (in the philosophical sense) of integral mission is incarnation. If a message truly flows from one’s being without outside influence or mixed motives, then one’s actions must bear out the message. The Incarnation is the only possible way that God’s being could express itself given the fall of humanity. The expectation that God has of His ambassadors is also of “purity” (James 1), which means words and deed in consonance with and flowing out of our being. To embody the message with out life.

We could continue enumerating and describing characteristics of the divine communication for a very long time. But that is not the goal here. The goal is to provide a simple example of how God has communicated and what that tells us about Him, His character, and His values, and also about us.

How would you describe God’s communication?

Inconsistent. Exaggerated. Cryptic. I can think of places in the Scripture where those adjectives are appropriate.

Beautiful, clear, and encouraging. It is easy to find such passages as well.

What conclusions do you draw from what you observe? How do your conclusions match with what you know from Scripture?

Finally, which of these characteristics should be embodied in our own communication?

Post-Scriptum The sole exception to the rule of particularity seems to be God’s communication of wrath in judgments (particularly the Noahic flood).

 

God, the Great Communicator

God exists, and He makes Himself known. These are two basic tenets of the Christian faith. God is not only a Creator, God is a communicator. Have you ever wondered why God communicates the way He does? It’s a fascinating question. The problem that parents face when trying to communicate with their small children fades into insignificance when placed beside the problem that God faces in revealing His infinite self to His finite children. Not only is the infinite trying to communicate with the finite, but God has constrained Himself to communicate in a world of competing narratives and interests since the day that, in His divine wisdom, He allowed those fateful words to ring out: “Did God really say you must not eat from any tree in the garden?” Why did God do that?

Why let in lies and half-truths?

Why doesn’t God reveal Himself directly?

Why doesn’t God answer prayers verbally?

Why allow humanity to participate in the writing of the Scriptures and the spreading of the Good News?

Why parcel out revelation over thousands of years?

Why did God become a person?

There are so many why questions that we have for God, and complete answers to these questions are unknowable. That is clear from the ending of the book of Job. Job asks some why questions of God and God chooses to communicate by asking questions of Job instead of giving answers to Job. Instead of answering in a single sentence, “Because you wouldn’t understand”, God spends two chapters asking questions. These questions lead Job to a revelation, to repentance, and to renewed relationship with God. The Scriptures are full of hints and clues about why God communicates, like this one, if we are willing to look for them. Each hint, each clue, reveals something about God, and something about humanity.

The answer to the question, “What is God’s communication like?” is another interesting one. Where the rationale behind God’s communication is (for the most part) hidden, the characteristics of God’s communication are directly observable. We  have less information that we would wish (non-verbal clues, tone of voice, etc.), but it is still a rich resource. For the majority of Christians, it is an overlooked resource. We act as if the saying, “It’s not what you said, it’s how you said it.”, does not apply to God. With God, too often we restrict ourselves just to what was said, not how it was said, or why, or how it could have been said differently. That is like walking past a pearl of great price.

God talks about His feelings. That is important. When an angel speaks in the gospel, the first thing they say is “Do not fear”. That tells us both that angels are scary looking, and that God doesn’t want us to be scared of angels. It may tell us something more about how fear affects our ability to hear and perceive God. We can see that God reveals parts of His plan for the future, but never all. We see that God uses metaphors, hyperbole, and other figures of speech. God regularly answers questions with questions. God seems to tailor His messages to the person who is receiving the message. God allows two-way communication. These observations give us insight into what God is trying to accomplish, and how, and why. It is shows us what it looks like to have God’s character and be an inhabitant of the kingdom. If we are honest, we won’t always understand why God chooses to communicate as He does, nor will we understand how a given communication embodies the values of His kingdom. But asking the question, and seeking to answer it, will surface issues that we would normally gloss right over.

Now for the relation to integral mission, which is both crucial and controversial.

There is no such thing as pure proclamation of the gospel.

It does not exist. It is a helpful theoretical construct, but every proclamation is already and always connected to demonstration and to being. To be more specific, the way that we proclaim the gospel is always a demonstration of our proclamation. In fact, sometimes the way that we say something is more important than the content of our message. The first step in integrating words and deeds is to integrate what we say with the way that we say it, which both arise from why we are saying it. A proclamation of the gospel with open body language, or with a haughty tone, or based on abstract logic instead of personal experience (or vice versa), or in a foreign language demonstrates something about the gospel. We are also aware that both the proclamation and the demonstration spring from our being. God’s being is the unpolluted source of His rationale, His why. As we seek to know God’s why, and to become aware of how God has chosen to demonstrate His proclamation, we become better integral missionaries.

Evangelism Metrics

Google returns approximately 471,000 results for “the unfinished task”. Nine of the top ten results are links to content about the Great Commission, the unfinished task of the Christian faith.

Tasks are part of a conceptual realm primarily associated with work. Management, scheduling, resource allocation, efficiency, strategic planning, and metrics all exist in the same conceptual realm. It is no surprise that when Christians begin discussing the Unfinished Task, efficiency, resources, strategy and management quickly enter the picture.

The natural question in this conceptual realm is “How can we complete the unfinished task as quickly as possible with the resources that we have?” This question is impossible to answer unless we can measure evangelism. Measuring evangelistic success is an  admittedly difficult issue that has spurred a lot of discussion, both among scholars and practitioners. The longer the discussion has gone, the more new questions that have arisen.

Do we measure the number of baptisms or professions of faith or new church members?

How do we know that conversions are genuine?

Should we count the number of new churches instead?

How about the number of growing churches?

How do capture spiritual depth or faith?

These are very difficult questions. The idea behind a centered-set approach to evangelism is that these questions are difficult, if not impossible to answer. That is the parable of the weeds in Matthew 13. But that answer doesn’t fit in the “task” conceptual realm. The central presupposition of business thinking is:

What gets measured, gets done.

With the obvious corollary that what doesn’t get measured, doesn’t get done. Missions and development organizations have accepted that there may not be a perfect answer, but not having an answer is not an option. Or else the unfinished task will remain unfinished.

Every organization has to justify the investment of its donors. We tend to fall back on some version of “number of converts” and/or “number of groups of believers”, as our good enough metrics. Then, over time, the organization begins to work improving those numbers. That’s what organizations do.

How can we maximize these numbers? How can we reduce defective outcomes, reduce time per conversion? How can we maximize the eternal impact on our investment of time, money, and human resources?

Efficiency. Bang for the buck. This is an urgent issue and people’s eternal destinies are at stake. Devoted followers of Jesus seek for (and find!) answers to these questions as well as new methodologies for evangelism in the Bible.

But, as always, the question frames (and to some extent, determines) the answer. What if we asked a different question.

“Can methodology, strategy, and/or management solve the problem of free choice?”

The problems that every single major evangelistic outbreak in the New Testament run into are rejection and persecution (by government, businessmen, and local religious groups). There are zero exceptions. To use the language of the internet: rejection and persecution aren’t bugs in the gospel, they are features.

So the real question is, “Is there a better method of evangelism that minimizes all this unpleasantness and increases adoption rates?”

The follow up question is “Why didn’t Jesus teach that method right from the start?”

The answer that appeals to me is that Jesus did not teach a method of evangelism, therefore there isn’t a “right” one. (For more, see last month’s post here.)

Maybe the paradigm for mission should not be “task completion”, but being faithful to the God of mission.

Integral mission requires faithfulness. It requires love for our neighbor, which requires sharing the good news. The foundation of evangelism is love for our neighbor. We see that many times in the New Testament, perhaps most clearly in Matthew 9. Jesus heart was touched with compassion for the lost, so he told the disciples to pray for workers. Paul preaches in the Areopagus in Acts 17 because he was saddened by the condition of the people. Love for God causes love for people causes evangelism. But salvation is not a task that can be optimized. Salvation is from the Lord. In fact, Paul takes steps to make sure that the spread of the gospel can’t be laid at the feet of his wisdom or his method. Are we willing to do the same? Do we trust God that much?

Baptizing Methods

This post is not about the various methods of baptizing a new believer. It’s about something much more important, the Western church’s penchant to baptize certain methodologies because they have produced spiritual success.

This is exactly the action that a social scientist or anthropologist would predict for any person (Christian or not) coming from a Western culture. The culture that invented the assembly line, the corporation, modern management, monitoring and evaluation, and competitive capitalism is a culture that eats, sleeps, and breathes strategy, evaluation, and success. Western metaphors for business “dog eat dog” and “survival of the fittest” are based on the idea that success is a precondition which must underlie and support “mission, vision, and values”. The mission doesn’t matter, nor the values, if the organization can’t pursue it successfully.

Our culture has an obsession with the right way. The right technique. The one that is the easiest, fastest, most effective, and least expensive. It’s a legacy of industrialization. There are lots of different methodologies to find the right way, e.g. Six Sigma, MVT, etc.

Of course, it has spilled over in the church. But, at the risk of being redundant, whenever Christians start doing something new for the same reasons that non-believers are doing it, we should get very nervous. The Church has left the narrow path for the wide road more than a few times in the last 2000 years, and the results have never been pretty. What about here?

Are we doing good theology when we analyze methods by their spiritual success? Is this biblical?

This issue is confusing because it hits at our cultural roots, and because good people use the Bible to justify the methods. So the logic is: we know the method is biblical because it is successful, and thus worthy of replication. Can you see the issue yet?

Let’s take a look at a couple of tongue-in-cheek examples. Would your organization or church be willing to follow these biblical examples?

Acts 2 – Send a team to share the gospel with a large crowd of people by miraculously speaking their native language. Do it with such enthusiasm that the crowd thinks you are drunk. Result: 3000 people saved!

Acts 16 – Get thrown in jail for casting out demons. Praise God, and refuse to flee when God does a miracle, so that you can share the gospel with the guard. Result: The guard and his whole family get saved and Paul and Silas get free dinner!

Genesis 27 – Lie to your old, nearly blind father and impersonate your older brother so that you can steal your father’s blessing from your older brother. This method is most biblical if your older brother is currently doing an act of loving service for your elderly father.  Result: Jacob becomes the sole inheritor of the covenant of Abraham and receive the blessing of God!

Judges 6 – Ask God for a sign several times after a clear voice from heaven speaks. Result: Defeat your enemies against incredible odds!

If they wouldn’t, why not? What is the difference between these methods and other biblical methods that they would follow? That feeling that you are feeling is cognitive dissonance. The real reason that your church or organization follows the method du jour is because they are successful and they make sense. But the real key is success.

The problem is, when we start talking about spiritual success: input does not equal output. We aren’t in control of the results. We are in control of our faithfulness. The real biblical example: Genesis 3.

I assume that we would all agree that God knows the right method and set up the best possible situation. His kids still rejected him. Your method is going to have to face the same reality. Humans have a choice to make, and sometimes they will choose God and sometimes they will not.

If there was a best method or a technique for doing evangelism or music or church planting, it would be clearly identified and explained in the Bible. Let’s not baptize our own creations (Satellite churches, House churches, Purpose Driven Life, Seeker Sensitive, Prophet Stories, Church Planting Movements, Contemporary Worship, etc.) just because God has graciously given success.

Don’t chase the right method or the right technique. Don’t chase success. The methods don’t matter and success all too often is a false sign! Look how many follow after anti-christs and false doctrines in the New Testament, and in the world today.

The narrow road leads to Jesus. Chase Jesus. That is hard enough. Be faithful to that calling. Can I say that most Christian methods that I have seen are “dis-integrating”? They tear apart what should be held together. They remove, they simplify. That’s also what an anthropologist would predict. But we are trying to live and be something greater than that.

Mision integral. Mission without anything left out.

If you are worried about the specifics, remember Numbers 22. God spoke through Balaam’s donkey. That should make you feel better. I mean, Balaam’s donkey wasn’t even a Jewish donkey. I’m sure that you know the Scriptures better than he (or she) did. And that donkey surely saved Balaam from God’s judgement.

Integral Mission and Donors

Quick Definition of Integral Mission

Integral mission is a simple concept with complex implications. One way to define integral mission is  the belief that a human life is a seamlessly integrated whole. There are physical, spiritual, emotional, social, political, economic, religious aspects of every human’s existence and they are all inter-related. Who we are as humans (our “being”) is reflected in how we act (our “doing”) and what we say (our “saying”).

Adultery is undoubtedly a physical act, but the implications and consequences span the gamut of the human experience. There are social, legal, religious, spiritual, missional, and health ramifications. These consequences are not limited to the people involved in the act: their children, siblings, parents, and friends are often impacted as well. A holistic view of sin and evil requires a holistic view of mission and the good. That is integral mission, seeing the world in its larger, more complex, and inter-related context, and addressing root causes instead of surface symptoms. Integral mission is another word for holistic theology.

Transforming Our View of the Poor

One of the most positive developments of our increased commitment to integral mission is that it has transformed our view of the poor. From a perspective limited to the spiritual, the poor were just “lost souls in need of a savior”, who happen to be hungry or have HIV.  From a perspective limited to the physical and economic, they are “people experiencing severe poverty”, who happen to have never heard the good news about Jesus.

From an integral mission perspective, the poor can no longer be “those people”. They are us. Human, made in the image of God. The poor cannot be defined by only their needs and their hurts, but by their gifts and their joys as well. They have great understanding of their context and situation, and great capacity. The poor are not just a pair of disembodied hands reaching out to beg for money, and viewing the poor as such is profoundly dishonoring to the God whose image they bear. Many Christian NGOs are starting to practice a more appropriate view of the poor in their development strategy, moving from a top-down, command-and-control approach to a bottom-up, grassroots approach, and they are experiencing new successes (as well as new challenges). In the same way, many NGOs have changed their fundraising strategies as well, committing to not displaying pictures that would shame those being displayed. This is a major transformation for NGOs who made videos of sad, naked, dirty, starving African children in Africa for decades as if that sadness and poverty was what defined Africa.

Transforming Our View of the Rich

This is a positive change, but our view of the rich, of those who supply the funds for mission is still in need of redemption. If the poor were pictured as begging hands before integral mission, then donors are still being pictured as little Monopoly men with bags of money trying to run away. Both images are dehumanizing and dishonoring to the image of God. These images have no place in a holistic Christian theology. The NGO must learn to view its donors as people, or even better, as friends and family.

That’s easy enough to say, and much harder to do. But difficulty is not the determiner of right or wrong. It was a long journey to understand how to be do good participatory development, and to re-humanize the poor in our thoughts. I expect that it will be another long journey to do good donor development and to re-humanize them in our thoughts as well. They may not be little gods, who rule, nor may they be little wallets, to be mined.

I see a few potential areas of transformation. Slick, emotionally manipulative advertising for donations turns the act of giving into a form of consumption. That cannot be the best that humans can do.

Donors are not just a “means” to a wallet. They are ends in themselves. What does that mean for NGOs and for churches? Perhaps it means that our pursuit of money should be less important than our pursuit of people.

In the end, I have many more questions than answers.

Is donating money too cheap?

Should giving be more costly?

In what ways and why?

Should more of the work of transformation and development be done by individuals?

Has the development NGO taken too much on itself and excluded the individual Christian?

Should the NGO have a vision for the transformation of the donor?

These are the questions I am asking myself. I do not have the answers yet. I have a feeling that, much like the transformation in our view of the poor, many of the activities involved with donors will remain the same, but they will be carried out in a different way with a different mindset.

What do you think? Have you ever been a donor? How were you treated? How were you viewed? How did that make you feel?

An Embodied Gospel for an Embodied People

Genesis 2:7 (NIV) – Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being

The inseparability of the human body and the human spirit is a foundation of integral mission. The a’dam became alive when his physical body and the spirit from God were combined. What God has joined together, let no man put asunder. The proper object of the misio Dei is humankind, all of whom are embodied spirits.

Unfortunately, the culture that has carried the Christian tradition for the last several centuries is a culture which invented the division of labor, the division of the public and private, the physical and spiritual, compartmentalization. It is a culture that values efficiency very highly.

In this culture, we are tempted to divide the mission of God into its components, and prioritize the most urgent. After all, mission is an urgent task. The time is short, Paul says.

So we think in terms of triage. Should we devote our time in proclaiming the good news or in meeting the physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of the poor and oppressed? Different traditions have emphasized different aspects: the mainline denominations emphasizing social programs and more evangelical denominations emphasizing pure proclamation.

The key insight of the Fraternidad Teológica Latinoamericana was that both of these “gospels” were a diminished form of the gospel. They were the gospel lite, and our brothers and sisters from Latin America noticed that an incomplete gospel produced fruit that was not in keeping with the values of the kingdom.

There is a spiritual reality that underlies everything. God is spirit. Humanity (including Jesus) is embodied spirit. Jesus holds everything physical together constantly by his spiritual power. The spirit is undeniably “more important” than the physical. But what does that really mean? Why does God go to the trouble of creating these fleshly tents? Why does Jesus feel the need to do miracles?

James 2 has a strong condemnation for those who think that the gospel can be proclaimed without being lived out. Even the demons believe, fool! Faith is not about believing that God exists. It’s about allegiance to God’s kingdom and values. And that allegiance requires that you actually love your brother instead of encouraging him to stay “warm and filled”, to actually help your neighbor instead of crossing to the other side of the road to avoid his broken body on your way to church.

On the other hand, the Pharisees offer an example for those who think that good works are sufficient. What makes your good deeds different from theirs, or from the good deeds of people of other faiths? Nothing! Nothing. Deeds are never self-explanatory. Humans will always impart a narrative on a deed without an explanation that fits with their understanding of the world and how it works. As such, deeds proclaim the gospel, but without words explaining the reason behind them, those deeds are mute. (Hebrews 11).

The gospel of love, forgiveness and new life in Jesus is the most important message that exists. If you doubt that, read through the gospels again and see how much importance Jesus puts on himself and his Father as opposed to anything else. To offer only water to the thirsty is to be short-sighted to the point of blindness and to have forgotten what importance Jesus placed on the spiritual. He died for forgiveness and reconciliation. Remember?

The gospel is like humanity, it must be embodied.

God acted in the Old Testament (mostly) through his prophets. Jesus acted in the Gospels. The apostles and the church acted in the Acts and the Epistles. The idea that you can hand out a tract as a presentation of the gospel is absurd. Fortunately, God uses absurd things to accomplish His purposes. Remember Balaam’s donkey?

But the message of Scripture is “I’ll show you my faith by my deeds.” One without the other is dead.

Both sides of the fundamentalist/liberal conflict that split Christianity in the early 20th century were wrong. The liberals kept social justice, but forgot that social justice is based on God’s justice and forgiveness, and that the most important part of justice is the divine justice (and mercy!) shown in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The fundamentalists kept evangelism, and soon enough found that a “words only” evangelism produces Christians in name only, fire insurance seekers with no allegiance to the gospel and no understanding that the words “love God and your neighbor” actually mean something.

It is a difficult thing to hold the two in view always, while almost always doing one or another. It’s not likely that every single time you do something loving, you are also going to share the good news, is it? Or that every time you have an opportunity to share the gospel, you will be concurrently performing some sort of action? No, the point is that both have to stay in view, and both must be pursued as love and the Holy Spirit demand.

What does integral mission look like in your life? In your work? In your organization?

Are you guilty of trying to separate the spiritual and the physical?

What are the consequences of that separation going to be?

The Gospel Diminished

What does sharing the gospel mean to you? It’s an important question, and our answer will determine how we view mission.

The Western church is renowned for falling into one of three versions of the diminished gospel, but every church and every person in this world will have a tendency towards one or another. A holistic view of the gospel is hard to hang on to, and harder to live out.

1. The Gospel is Something to be Outsourced to Professionals

The first view is the most common. The gospel is that good news which we hire professionals to do. We may not know exactly what the gospels means, but we don’t really know how our phones or computers work either. So we hire people that do. The gospel is just another service that people are happy to pay others to do for them. This is not a surprising development in a service-oriented economy. It is also the easiest to disprove by any number of arguments. For our purposes, James 4:17 will suffice. “So whoever knows the right thing to do and fails to do it, for him it is sin.” You can’t pay someone else to love your wife or your kids, or your enemies, and you can’t outsource your gospel sharing responsibilities to someone else. By all means, let’s sponsor full-time workers. But paying a babysitter doesn’t get you off the hook for taking care of your kids. Nor does sponsoring full-time workers obviate your identity as an ambassador of the ministry of reconciliation.

2. The Gospel is a Speech

There are serious debates about what words the script should composed of. Should it be purely Scriptural, like the Romans Road? Should it be primarily conceptual like the 4 spiritual laws? Should it be narratival like sharing the stories of the Old Testament prophets? These methods have meaningful differences, but there is an underlying unity. The spread of the gospel is the spread of a set of words.

That is a very important truth! After all the evangelion is “the good news”! However, if we take the examples of the New Testament seriously, we see that a gospel that is only words is incomplete.

Jesus often preceded a message of the kingdom by a demonstration of power or of compassion. James was bold enough to say “show me your faith without deeds and I’ll show you my faith BY my deeds”, directly condemning a words-only gospel. Paul, so often placed in opposition to both James and Jesus, stands in full agreement. “because our gospel came to you not simply with words, but also with power, with the Holy Spirit and with deep conviction. You know how we lived among you for your sake”. A gospel that of words alone is just a lot of hot air. Anybody can talk the talk. Just check the news for stories of all the fraudulent television evangelists. They sound good. They talk about forgiveness and mercy and charity and mercy and grace and faith. These words are powerful. But James is going to say, “Those words are pretty. Now, prove that you believe them.” Then there will be silence. There are lots of messages being preached out there, lots of goods for sale in the marketplace of ideas. The gospel has always been a message embodied in the lives and actions of its proclaimers. A gospel of only words is a diminished gospel.

Words without deeds are dead, meaningless things.

3. The Gospel is Action

In contrast, Millennials and activists look at the works of Jesus and his followers and find them sufficient. The gospel is caring for the poor, healing the sick, spending time with people. The deed itself is sufficient to share the message of God: that He loves you. This is a beautiful thing to see. It is the St. Francis of Assisi model of spreading the gospel.

But, if we take the New Testament seriously, this view is also deficient. Deeds are not sufficient. Now matter how kind you are, no matter how compassionate, no matter how much you give to the poor and needy, it will never be enough. Why? Because every culture, every people group, every person has a category and an explanation for people who do good things that fits in their worldview. A psychologist might see “excessive” good works as an attempt to overcompensate for a lack of praise in early childhood. A Hindu might see it as an attempt to accrue good karma. A cynic might see it as an attempt to curry favor. Good deeds are not limited to Christians.

We see this clearly in Acts 14 when Paul and Barnabas heal a man in Lystra. Healing is the epitome of a good deed, but the Lystrans interpreted that as-yet-wordless deed according to their own worldview: Paul and Barnabas are gods! Paul’s reaction is eye-opening

“The priest of Zeus, whose temple was just outside the city, brought bulls and wreaths to the city gates because he and the crowd wanted to offer sacrifices to them. But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of this, they tore their clothes and rushed out into the crowd, shouting: “Friends, why are you doing this? We too are only human, like you. We are bringing you good news,”

The first thing Paul and Barnabas do is mourn. Their actions have been seen, rejoicing has set in, but the absolutely wrong conclusion has been drawn. Paul and Barnabas tore their clothes, and then they ran to fill the air with words. Every good deed is open to interpretation and, to misinterpretation. We must provide the interpretation. “I’m buying your lunch because of Jesus Christ.” “I do this because I love you … because of Jesus Christ!” Or again, in Romans 10:14 “How can they believe in someone they have never heard of?”

Deeds without words are mute, useless for sharing good news. 

A Holistic Gospel

To define the gospel is beyond my abilities. It may well have been beyond the capacities of the writers of the New Testament. But I can make some affirmations. The good news must flow out of the transformation in the life and being of the proclaimer. Sharing the gospel requires words and deeds, together, always. That gospel is the true one, the power of God for those who are being redeemed. There are appropriate and inappropriate situations to share the news of the gospel, but as long as words exist without deeds or deeds exist without words, the person has not yet witnessed the full gospel. That is not a problem. Most of the time, we are only given the opportunity to share a part of the gospel, to plant a seed which we pray that the Holy Spirit will bring to fruition. But we must recognize that fact, and pray for the chance to share more and more fully.

This implies that the gospel is best shared in relationships.

In the end, we want the people to whom we witness to proclaim with John, “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched—this we proclaim concerning the Word of life.” That is the gospel that we are entrusted with sharing. And receiving the gospel implies sharing it with others!

You and Your Church

Is your church following a model of evangelism that includes words and deeds? Is spreading the good news the acknowledged responsibility of every believer? Or is it something else, something less than that?

How about your own personal practice of spreading the good news? Are your deeds rendered speechless by your fear of rejection or disagreement or confrontation? Are your words rendered powerless by the absence of compassionate action?

We all fall far short here as in so many other areas. But we must acknowledge that we fall short, and, with the power of the Holy Spirit, aim for the spread of a gospel that is undiminished.